Kinetic space launch refers to a launch in which the vehicle is imparted very high initial velocity and leaves the launch apparatus at maximum speed. The vehicle, at least initially, is a simple projectile.
The highest velocity occurs at exit where atmospheric pressure is highest. Therefore
The dynamic pressure on the vehicle is highest.
Atmospheric drag is highest.
Aero-thermal effects are highest.
Currently, no one pursuing kinetic launch systems expects to reach orbit directly with a kinetic system. Rather, a second stage rocket will be used to attain the final increment of orbital speed. Companies do, however, expect to exceed the Karman Line. The Karman Line is the most commonly used definition of the threshold of space. It is 100 km Continue reading “Kinetic Space Launch”
‘More evidence that Hurricane Michael was definitely NOT a Category FIVE storm at landfall.’
Robert W. Endlich
In late September 2022 Category Four Hurricane Ian struck southwest Florida bringing death and destruction to southwest Florida. Ian’s arrival and wind damage spurred me to take another look at when 2018’s Hurricane Michael struck the Panhandle of Florida, and NOAA’s 2019 declaration that Michael was a Category Five storm at landfall.
Richard S. Lindzen
Professor Emeritus of Atmospheric Sciences, MIT
[This essay is a slightly extended version of a lecture delivered to a joint zoom meeting of the Irish Climate Science Forum and CLINTEL on March 31, 2021.]
For about 33 years, many of us have been battling against climate hysteria. We have correctly noted
The exaggerated sensitivity,
The role of other processes and natural internal variability,
The inconsistency with the paleoclimate record,
The absence of evidence for increased extremes, droughts, floods, wild-fires, and so on.
We have also pointed out the very real benefits of CO2 and even of modest warming. And, as concerns government policies, we have been pretty ineffective. Indeed our efforts have done little other than to show (incorrectly) that we take the threat scenario seriously. In this talk, I want to make a tentative analysis of our failure.